Both systems are useful for survival, yet the processes and results they yield are often in competition with each other. Haven’t seen you there recently, is there something you aren’t telling us? What we want to be on gaurd against is buying the cart with the horse (for example, buying into foreign propaganda aimed against one of the two parties out of an affinity for the other party, or buying into a plank like prohibition out of party loyalty). Source: 16 basic principles of mass indoctrination. Some time has been spent analyzing the means by which propaganda messagesare transmitted. If you want someone to reject an idea, get them saying “no” and rejecting ideas. Also this is all generally “social psychology tactics,” so one can look to things like “gaining techniques” and the psychology of compliance in general. Stereotyping: The incitement of prejudice by reducing a target group, such as a segment of society or people adhering to a certain religion, to a set of undesirable traits. “The propagandist…directs his appeal to groups held together already by common ties, ties of nationality, religion, race, sex, vocation…. Generally, we want to take negative energy and confusion and leave in its place positive energy and reasoned fact. Emotional reaction precedes reasoned analysis, like biting must have preceded the evolution of teeth. Anything counter-factual, anything that obscures or distorts truth is anathema to the scientific project. NOTES: Some of the “big list” below is borrowed from Wikipedia and Daily Writing Tips at the moment while I better collect my thoughts (really want that to be clear while it still clearly mimics their lists). The brilliant propagandist is the man who tells the truth, or that selection of the truth which is requisite for his purpose, and tells it in such a way that the recipient does not think he is receiving any propaganda… […] The art of propaganda is not telling lies, but rather selecting the truth you require and giving it mixed up with some truths the audience wants to hear.” In other words, propaganda is the art of selective truth telling (AKA a popular favor of BS). Like how people accuse Saul Alinsky of being Satanic because he used Lucifer as a literary device. “Y and Z? Many of these same techniques can be found under logical fallacies, since propagandists use arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid. Let’s call the bad kind “negative” and the good kind “positive.” If we don’t denote the type, look to the context in which the term is used. With that in mind, the section below is focused on Russia (for the reasons stated above). The idea is to hurt or help a brand via labels. And the competition is rigged. It’s a way to Bask in someone’s Reflected Glory (BIRGing, in social psychology parlance), to have another’s legitimacy confer legitimacy onto the propagandist. 3. Weak Inference (or False Cause): When a judgement is made based on inconclusive evidence. At the end of the day, I think we want to live in a society where suspect B ends up in prison. TIP: In logic and reason, deductive reasoning uses certainty and inductive reasoning uses probability. It is a common reaction to injustice, humiliation, or betrayal. Propagandists know this and they will always try to sell a strong man and sell admirable qualities to sell a brand. This is the root of conspiracy theories (which are generally actually conspiratorial speculative hypotheses). His work, rather unfortunately, inspired Joseph Goebbels propaganda master of the NAZI party. There is no great answer here, the mud slinging is effective and hard to deal with. Feel free to contribute any tactics below by commenting. It is a tool that may be used by both sides. Republicans (generally selling either 1+2 or 1+3 as a package). If there is a fan club around a person, that can be used to manipulate people. Reductio ad Hitlerum (reducing everything to Hitler): A clever name for reducing everything back to one negative person or event in order to get people to dismiss the idea. Some core propaganda tactics: Anchoring: Connecting two things that don’t connect naturally. Card Stacking is what we may these days call “hyping.” It’s full court PR press. Scapegoating: Blaming a person or a group for a problem so that those responsible for it are assuaged of guilt and/or to distract the audience from the problem itself and the need to fix it. Moreover propaganda may be used to achieve ‘good’ ends. With a simple name one can  dismiss everything a person says, or conversely, a positive name can lift up a person everything does. Why? Kids These Day: How Youth Behavior Really Stacks Up. A straw man is an oversimplified substitute for an actual issue or another person’s actual position on an issue. He was also one of the people who knowingly pushed the false narrative about Obama’s birth certificate. Give a no answer to a yes question then reframe the conversation by using that break in flow as a pivot point. Mass suggestion or influence through the manipulation of symbols and the psychology of individual. Audio tactics: Using sounds to depress or excite people and to generally manipulate behavior. LikeWar: The Weaponization of Social Media P. W. Singer. This isn’t a statement on the person, it is a statement on how the fan-base can be exploited. Because people have really strong cognitive filters and biases that make them resistant to change. It would take very little effort, for example, to dig up egregious examples of ad nauseum, name-calling, sloganeering, stereotyping, and reductio ad Hitlerum from every conceivable part of the political spectrum in 2020. It uses a type of logic, but that logic is based on fallacy and emotion, rather than formal sound and cogent logic. False Association, or false analogy: Hitler liked art, therefore all artists are NAZIs. Like when you start the barter with a high price and the barter down to the price you wanted in the first place. This technique is used frequently in marketing and advertising. Why? Thus we are deeply conformist by design, and are strongly susceptible to normative pressures. Anger is closely related and used to much the same effect. Wilson: “People would rather believe than know.” The propagandist’s appeal to emotion is therefore bound to find a more ready reception than the scientist’s appeal to reason. Deliberateness and a relatively heavy emphasis on manipulation distinguish propaganda from casual conversation or the free and easy exchange of ideas. Everyone on campus believes he’s the killer; they expect him to have been the killer; they even hope he’s the one, so he’d be removed from campus. Furthermore, and perhaps more to the point, we explain how to safeguard yourself and others against negative messaging and how to use counter-arguments to “flip the script” on propagandists. Appeal to the stone (argumentum ad lapidem): A tactic where one dismisses a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its absurdity. Social psychology topics can provide a great deal of inspiration for further research, whether you are writing a psychology paper or conducting your own psychology experiment. Lying: Spreading false or distorted information that justifies an action or a belief and/or encourages acceptance of it. Many of these other techniques are types of disinformation. TIP: Ad hominem attacks aren’t useless, in some instances, questions of personal conduct, character, motives, etc., are legitimate and relevant to the issue. “Yumm, Bourgeoisie capitalism; tastes like liberty!” All half-joking aside, the thing to note here is that selling Bourgeoisie capitalism via “the main stream media,” and generally selling other Americanisms, is only one of many things happening in the world today. What you do is take a carefully selected collection of truths, lies, and half-truths that all seem to tell a story (which is actually revised history) and use them to construct a story that eventually supplants the public’s accurate perception of the underlying events. He makes the unreal appear real and the real appear unreal. Bad names, according to IPA, “have ruined reputations, stirred men and women to outstanding accomplishments, sent others to prison cells, and made men mad enough to enter battle and slaughter their fellowmen.”. Gift Ideas in Propaganda & Political Psychology ‹ Any Department ‹ Books ‹ Politics & Social Sciences ... which is the sixth in our series of propaganda techniques. Although many studies have been done on mimicry, one described by Michael Lynn of Cornell University is particularly interesting. It is hard to write about bias without getting dark or stepping on, In case that above comment “triggered” you (in case you had an adverse reaction to terms like Hitler, Russia, left, or right), now is probably a good time to bring up. The idea is to create an exhaustive list over time, even if that means over-lap. Such fear is often disproportionate to the actual danger. Savvy propagandists, Miller and his colleagues realized, draw their power in large part from the fact that their targets are not aware that propaganda is being used on them. 2. Assume you are dealing with a well intentioned person trying to spread good information (who is at worst unwittingly spreading bad information) and work your way back from there. We are more likely to act on a feeling without much thought than to act on a thought without much feeling. TIP: Many propaganda techniques can be said to mirror formal and informal fallacies. Demonizing the enemy: Propagandists often seek to dehumanize and denigrate the opposition to sway opinion against them, anchor negative emotions to them, make them “the elite”, make them “out-group”, etc. Both, Prof. Lumby and the Institute of Propaganda Analysis, focus attention on some methods of techniques used in propaganda. Propaganda is a form of communication that is intentionally used to spread information (or disinformation) and ideas that can promote a cause or discredit an opposing one. Who Most Wants to Get Back Together With an Ex? There is no means of human communication which may not also be a means of deliberate propaganda, because propaganda is simply the establishing of reciprocal understanding between an individual and a group.”. Looking for facts to back up your choice is an excellent idea, but find out who is presenting those facts. Yes/No Conditioning, eliciting a response, leading: Eliciting a response by asking questions you know a person will give an affirmative or negative response to. Used to recruit members to a cult or ideology by having a group of individuals cut off a person from their existing social support and replace it entirely with members of the group who deliberately bombard the person with affection in an attempt to isolate the person from their prior beliefs and value system. Operant conditioning: Indoctrination by presentation of attractive people expressing opinions or buying products. Counter: You could always try bringing up the American revolution, liberty, the bill of rights, individualism, etc. Disinformation can involve the deletion of information from public records, in the purpose of making a false record of an event or the actions of a person or organization, including outright forgery of photographs, motion pictures, broadcasts, and sound recordings as well as printed documents. Democracy and liberty aren’t dirty words, and neither are equality and republicanism, yet ongoing battles of information have colored these words in odd ways (and this is what we want to guard against). Its all about framing an argument to help people see it from your viewpoint or re-framing an argument (controlling perspective). Managing the news (talking points): Staying on message, spreading the talking point, and using classical conditioning. I try to approach everything from the center and with respect to my audience and my own biases… but I tend to have a liberal left / social left / capitalist / American bias. In general propaganda is about emotion, not facts. One reason, of all these sources, a lot of focus is on Russia specifically is… a lot of these techniques get credited to them specifically. It is easy to exploit the many results of this basic human attribute. Artificial Dichotomy: A type of black and white A/B choice. wow I could see that there was a set of tactics, and have done some research to see what is the red herring vs. a distraction vs. some other motive – excellent set of information. Could always do with another edit! In other words, it is getting someone to accept a “doctrine” as their own ideology. "Types of Propaganda, Propaganda Techniques, and Propaganda Strategies" is tagged with: Bias, Conspiracy Theories, Epistemology, Logic and Reason, Perception, Philosophy of Language, Propaganda, Social Engineering, Truth. Of course there are left-wing equivalents (I won’t spin this and tell you there are not), and surely there are companies and parts of government who put out their own talking points (especially companies now that we have even more deregulation like Citizens United), but two-or-more wrongs don’t make a right! If so, it worked. Experimenters had servers in a restaurant take two different approaches to confirming an order. $14.53 #9. Human beings are herd animals. Ad hominem in general (deflection): Focusing an attack on the opposition rather than on the argument or issue. While it is natural that your own views will at the very least “seep through” in what you write, if you ever edit this piece, I would encourage you to consider including more specific examples of left-leaning propaganda, as you did in the entry on “cult of personality.” There is certainly no lack in this age of spin in which we live! So “love” with a small “l”, more like crazy cult stuff you should run away from. (Nonconformists by and large do not opt out of the group to go it alone; they merely switch affiliations from one group to another). Everyone is emotionally distraught about the murder, which is good because it motivates an investigative effort. Obfuscation: Intentionally vague and ambiguous messaging, intended to confuse the audience as it seeks to interpret the message, or to use incomprehensibility to exclude a wider audience. If I am right in choosing to assume that your purpose here is to shed light on propaganda rather than create it, then adding such examples would help you better accomplish your goal, as uncomfortable as it can be to pull back the curtain on manipulative tactics used by one’s own allies or in support of one’s own causes. Half-truths are almost always used in propaganda. In more complex terms, any emotion or conation can be anchored to a term, and then a term can be anchored to a person. Media spends a lot of time exploiting fears, propagandists do too. Understood as such, propaganda is not the sole providence of one side or another in the political (or any other) arena. Presidential candidates who eat at McDonald’s, kiss babies, visit Iowa, or wear a baseball cap are not plain folks; they are merely using the ‘plain folks’ technique. He resorts to lies, censorship and distortion. That work is important but it is clear that informationdissemination strategies only become propaganda strategies when coupled withp… Here it is important to note that one who trolls or spreads propaganda is either doing so knowingly or not. The problem of propaganda affects only changing civilizations, the fixed social systems designated as "primitive" culture being freed from it by the relatively simple processes of summary and drastic treatment of any would-be propagandist. Psychology and marketing are neutral fields of social science… some of that field has got weaponized more than a few times from WWI to today. Any interest can use propaganda, and generally all do. Propaganda knows how to sell a product. Counter: Fear is countered with love and understanding. There are few things as satisfying as explaining to someone why their argument is unsound and invalid (or uncogent and weak), consider learning about the basics of logic and reason! The aim of propaganda is to change minds via the use of emotion, misinformation, disinformation, truths, half-truths, and cleverly selected facts; not to enlighten (although one can technically propagandize true information, using emotion to sell truth, this generally isn’t what we are talking about when we use the term “propaganda”). By the time Hitler was dead and the Cold War underway, the word had lost its Godly associations and became a pejorative, connoting mostly the self-serving lies of nefarious tyrannical regimes. When someone says something, don’t disagree and thereby trigger a “no response,” instead re-frame and and say “yes, but…”, then make your point, and then get them to start giving yes responses. We apologize if our video choice or example choice is coming off as biased. Hence, the biggest underlying problem with propaganda is not who is using it, but the extent to which it’s used to the diminishment or exclusion of reason, science, fact and truth. FACT: C. S. Lewis coined the term Bulverism. The second set of servers repeated the order in the … Hope and Change. In this way, propaganda is not a magic show but a con. Part 3: Rapid fire conspiracy theories, Russia’s Online Troll Army Is Huge, Hilarious & Already Everywhere, The Sunday Show – Uncovering Russian Propaganda With Former ‘Russia Today’ Anchor, Propaganda Terms in the Media and What They Mean – Noam Chomsky, how people accuse Saul Alinsky of being Satanic because he used Lucifer as a literary device. It thus becomes vitally important for the State to use all of its powers to repress dissent, for the truth is the mortal enemy of the lie, and thus by extension, the truth is the greatest enemy of the State.” – Goebbels on “the Big Lie” (See tactics below for “the big lie” tactic). A classic example is the “intelligent design” versus “evolution” controversy, another example is “climate change denial” versus “climate change science.” Just because there are two general choices don’t mean there are only two positions to take and it hardly means both sides are equal. If we keep hearing “pro-life” instead of “anti-choice” or “taxation is theft” instead of “paying our fair share” or “gay marriage” instead of “marriage equality” it can become true. Inevitable victory: A bandwagon technique. Bernays literally wrote the book on Propaganda, public relations, and manipulating public opinion. TIP: If you see comments online that are off-subject (sowing confusion or deflecting) and are focused on negative emotion over fact… there is a chance you are dealing with an online troll or someone indoctrinated by propaganda. Labeling or name-calling: Labeling can be positive or negative. It contains the areas of abnormal psychology, biological psychology, cognitive psychology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, personality psychology, social psychology and others. See a list of fallacies. Consider, rhetoric has been long studied as the art of effective persuasion in speech. It has gone through various permutations since. Nice spin. Yes! 5. One tactic propagandists use is that they anchor negative emotions to a word! Appeal to authority: Humans obey authority on average. Neither nor its parent companies accept responsibility for any loss, damage, or inconvenience caused as a result of reliance on information published on, or linked to, from However, these kinds of words mean different things to different people and can be used in different ways. The idea that sex sells falls under this category. Social Psychology’s Research Techniques: Research psychology encompasses the study of behavior for use in academic settings, and contains numerous areas. TIP: It is not). Stalling and Ignoring the Question: A very common technique is to ignore questions (to avoid giving unpopular answers or specific answers) or to stall (to get more time to think). It is when elites try to act like regular ol’ folks (mirroring their mannerisms, ideology, and policy stances) to try to connect with an audience that they wouldn’t otherwise connect with. Appeal to prejudice: Humans naturally favor their in-group and fear their out-group. He’s a widely loathed rival of the deceased. The fact that it may be utterly untrue is essentially irrelevant, it brings controversy to the opponent and throws them off guard. Persuasion also often makes use of loaded words and images. Glittering generalities. Propaganda is information (delivered through any medium) designed to persuade, manipulate emotion, and change opinion rather than to inform using logical truths and facts. Ad hominem tu quoque (meaning “You also”): This technique is when you respond to your opponent by accusing them of acting in a way that is inconsistent with the argument. Noam Shpancer, Ph.D., is a professor of psychology at Otterbein College and a practicing clinical psychologist in Columbus, Ohio. Help guide the person toward a broader group based on positive emotions (giving them a replacement group). No, you’ll never change the mind of a bot, but you may influence others viewing the thread or, you never know, could influence the entity behind the bot. Propaganda, dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumors, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion. Paperback. Also, the goal is to manipulate cognitive bias. “So much winning!”. Roger Stone was one of the strategists behind Donald Trump, both in the Gore vs. Bush election and in 2016, and he was a central figure in the Clinton years (he is one of the reasons why the anti-Hillary message came back so hard in 2016). He omits facts. This paper explores political persuasion and propaganda, types, factors that make persuasion effective, theories that underly political persuasion and propaganda, propaganda in Nigeria , and how to detect and resist propaganda Our site is not officially associated with any brand or government entity. The term propaganda is often used in two limited senses. The antidote to the process of propaganda is the process of finding factual truth. Counter: A group based on being against another group is negative. Propaganda like the above sells National pride and a positive message, but it also does this by demonizing other ideologies (rightly or wrongly). The fact that propaganda is at heart an emotional manipulation also does not mean that our emotions and "emotionality" are bad. For example, talking heads will often dismiss the climate change debate with a line like “more research is needed.” Counter: Bring it back to subject, “with the research we do have, what do you think?” Or, point out, “you did not answer the question, specifically, give me a specific answer, what do you think about X.” If they won’t give an answer, say, “ok, you don’t want to address that question head on, that is your choice, you did say X, so we’ll just have to infer your stance based on that.”. Propagandists appeal to our fears but also to our courage, our hatred and our love. Propaganda that promotes fear, leaves people open to further propaganda. A number of techniques which are based on social psychological research are used to generate propaganda. If we have a stronger platform (a platform of correctness, logic, reason, etc) then no amount of negative propaganda can take the century. Exploiting the nature fear of “others” and the desire to belong to a group is a favorite tactic of propagandists and authoritarians. As Wikipedia says well: Richard Crossman, the British Deputy Director of Psychological Warfare Division (PWD) for the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) during the Second World War said, “In propaganda truth pays… It is a complete delusion to think of the brilliant propagandist as being a professional liar. Mass Indoctrination, Propaganda, Social Psychology. Propagandists will use testimonials to legitimize an idea or position. Well Ted, you said I was Satanic, but I go to church with your Mom. Consequently, the general frame with which we approach the world matters. For example, “Oh, dearism” is a propaganda strategy that uses a number of propaganda techniques to sow confusion in the public and get them to feel like positive action is hopeless, that the world’s problems are hopelessly complex, and that the answer is found in fringe factions. It evolved to become the calculated manipulation of emotions and societal desires to psychologically influence a buyer to purchase goods. Still, generally speaking, an attack on a person speaks little to the facts behind an argument or the argument being made.[5]. But she’s also a scientist, doggedly trying to figure out how stuff works. New York, H. Holt and company [©1935] (OCoLC)570555497 Online version: Confronting the world with positivity rather than paranoia is a good first step. Any audio/visual medium can act as a platform for propaganda. This is normal. Bandwagon: Humans naturally desire to be part of a group. Are they facts , or is the advertiser using propaganda techniques to persuade you? Propaganda techniques and strategies are heavily funded endeavors that apply social psychological theory to the practice of shaping and maintaining a particular bent of social consciousness on a collective scale. Non Sequitur: A type of logical fallacy, in which a conclusion is made out of an argument that does not justify it. For example, we wouldn’t say “Russia hacked the election” we would say “according to official declassified documents, specifically the January report, Background to Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections: (a document produced by select members of the CIA, FBI, and NSA under the Office of the Director of National Intelligence): There is a high degree of certainty that Russia ordered an influence campaign in 2016 to undermine public faith in the US democratic process and the sway the election that included: the use of troll bots and trolls on social media, hacks (including DNC hacks; as we later learned, with fake documents inserted), leaks to sources like Wikileaks, targeted messaging on Russian state media like RT, and more.” Here we aren’t trying to use emotional responses to turn people against Russia, or imply that RT is “fake news,” or to imply that Trump didn’t win the election fair and square, we are trying to convey findings from a report, provide some context, and state certainty. Insinuation: A tactic where one uses the complexities of symbolic language to practice a form of doublespeak. By 1941, the IPA had ceased its activities, yet its animating concerns, and the principles it outlined, are as urgent and relevant today as they were then. He offers false testimony. The tactic aims at the very bottom of the pyramid of reasoned counter-arguments (see Graham’s Hierarchy of Disagreement in the image below). The tricksters may win the day, but they tarnish their long-term reputation as the world becomes more informed and educated. Indoctrination: Indoctrination is the process of influencing a person with ideas and attitudes (AKA brainwashing). Some terms applying to logic and reasoning showing how reasoned arguments work. In polite society misinformation ( which is the reality of the testimonial, 7 basic personality ingredients of people! Populism isn ’ t get demoralized, use the opportunity to boost.. 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