Copy this to my account; … Many disputes have been resolved through negotiations, but not all. Occasionally, a particularly troublesome provincial region or ethnicity will result in a sort of compromise situation, or devolution, in which a unitary system, like China, will grant a special exemption to one region or group to allow that location semi-autonomy or greater local control. answer choices ... Sovereign states are free to establish their own foreign policy regarding other nations. AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. CREATE AN ACCOUNT Create Tests & Flashcards. Created. Thus, the boundaries of states bordering the Mississippi River are fixed to the river’s old course, though the location of its meanders has changed. ... Types of political entities such as nations and nation-states; ... AP Human Geography Course and Exam Description The study of the "political" organization of the world. Modern archaeological and anthropological evidence shows that many early societies were not as centralized, despotic, or unequal as the hydraulic theory would suggest. A multistate nation is a nation which operates more than one states within its borders. AP Human Geography Vocabulary Apartheid: a legal system that was the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas My definition: separation of people in South Africa based on race Example: There were apartheid laws in South Africa between around 1950 to 1994. Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Geography, 1.1 Geography: The Science of Where, How, and Why, Chapter 3: Cultural Patterns and Processes, Chapter 4: Political Borders, Boundaries, and Governments, 5.5 Globalization and International Trade, 7.3 Cities as Cultural and Economic Centers, 7.4 Cities as Environmental and Sustainable Centers. When a state has total control over its internal and foreign affairs, it is called a sovereign state. Iceland is one of the best examples of a nation-state where only 6.66% of the population are of a different nationality. Eastern Europe is abundant in raw materials and farmland, which are needed to support a vast army that could then control the coasts and water ports that make international trade possible. Level. Another example of a multistate nation is the Koreans, whose national population is split predominantly between the states of North Korea and South Korea. Stateless Nations: AP Human Geography Crash Course Review An Introduction to Stateless Nations A stateless nation is a special case of national political systems, but nonetheless crucial to understanding political geography. The devolution of a state is caused by what kinds of conflict? The idea or concept of a state originated in the Fertile Crescent between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea. Warned that if this pivot area become influential in Europe a great empire would be formed. This question has been one of the central political issues in the U.S., since even before the War for Independence. Dahl called this kind of state a polyarchy. D required the application of a concept, the nation-state, to the case of Canada. Nearly compact but possesses one or more narrow extensions of territory; can be artificial or natural; and isolate a portion of a state. Tilly examined the political, social, and technological change in Europe from the Middle Ages to the present and attempted to explain the unprecedented success of the nation-state as the dominant form of state on Earth. A territory legally attached to another territory with which it is not physically contiguous. Advanced Placement Human Geography (also known as AP Human Geo, AP Geography, APHG, AP HuGe, AP HuG, AP Human, or HGAP) is an Advanced Placement social studies course that studies human geography.The test is administered by College Board.. Geography. 79% average accuracy. B) Australia and New Zealand. The term nation refers to a homogeneous group of people with a common heritage, language, religion, or political ambition. Political boundary defined and delimited by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape, such as a river or the crest ridges of a mountain range. Rather than break into multiple smaller states, a country can choose to give each of its ethnicities or nationalities some measure of political autonomy. 1. State 2. Learn More : Share this Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Plus on Google+ They then view the state as a neutral body that enacts the will of whichever group dominates the electoral process. Chapter 8 AP Human Geography Vocabulary (first 19 words) Tools. Agriculture allowed communities to settle and also led to class division: some people devoted all their time to food production, while others were freed to specialize in other activities, such as writing or ruling. This strait remains the subject of a maritime boundary dispute between Canada and the United States. Centripetal vs. Centrifugal Forces: AP Human Geography Crash Course Countries today face a myriad of issues that threaten to divide its citizens. 50. European countries have progressed to the point where the concept of forming or remaining a nation-state is a driving force in many political sectors. They are quite common throughout … Differences in language can be a cause for unrest, and may require resolution by the central government. Political geography is the study of how humans have divided up the surface of the Earth for purposes of management and control. If you don't, then you clearly did not read the first sentence. System wherein each representative is elected from a territorially defined district. Centripetal vs. Centrifugal Forces: AP Human Geography Crash Course Countries today face a myriad of issues that threaten to divide its citizens. Some nations are stateless. D) Mexico and Russia. 01/10/2011. A State that contains more than one nation within its borders Examples: USA, Canada, Belgium, Iraq(Sunni vs. Shiite) A nation-state is a state with primarily only one nation within its borders. You would need to create a new account. The Palestinians are perhaps the world’s best-known stateless nation, owed to their long struggle with Israeli Jews – some of whom, until 1948, belonged to the previously best-known nation without a state. Today we take it for granted that different societies are governed by different states, but this has not always been the case. At each location, somebody or some group seeks to establish the rules governing what happens in that space, … When nations and states come together, there is a true nation-state, wherein most citizens share a common heritage and a united government. This process is often beneficial to the unitary nations to prevent political instability and conflict; however, it can be withdrawn by the central government at any time. 32 key terms in the APHG study of political geography. Political sociologists continue to debate the origins of the state and the processes of state formation. The U.S. began as a federalist system. 104 times. The term Balkanization comes from the Balkans region of Southeastern Europe. B) Australia and New Zealand. Zero population growth definition, the maintenance of a population at a constant level by limiting the number of live births to that needed to replace the existing population. According to the United Nations, in 2016, the world had 193 nations; however, many of those nations dispute their boundaries. • State-less nation: A nation … As such, it usually defines areas of exclusive national rights over any natural resources within that boundary. Anarchism is a political philosophy that considers states immoral and instead promotes a stateless society, anarchy. Involves neighbors who differ over the way their borders should function. For many hundreds of years, the Balkans have been home to a large number of disparate and often hostile nationalities, usually governed under the administration of one empire (Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Yugoslavian). Unlike some other AP tests, the AP Human Geography exam does not require you to write a long essay with a thesis statement. Europeans used colonialism to promote political control over religion, extract natural resources, increase economic influence, and to expand political and military power. D 7. autocracy. Multi-state Nation 4. The forces within a state that unify the people. Though the political boundaries of many European countries resemble nation-states, there is too much diversity within the nations to consider the idea of creating a nation-state an actual reality. AP Human Geography Samples and Commentary from the 2019 Exam Administration: Free-Response Question 3 - Set 1 Author: College Board Subject: AP Human Geography Samples and Commentary from the 2019 Exam Administration: Free-Response Question 3 - Set 1 Keywords Canada is a multinational state with at least two nations; French-Canadians and English-Canadians. Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. The steps (criteria) for establishing boundaries: ~Political boundary defined and delimited as a straight line or an arc. Has a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, … The term Balkanization comes from the Balkans region of Southeastern Europe. 0. Chapter 13 where a large amount description or image, apply mining, and petroleum region AP Human Geography. Vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below, and the airspace above the surface. Answer Key 1. 10th - 12th grade. Data analysis at different scales (for example, global, national, local) How geographers define regions; On The Exam. This means that there are groups of people who share a collective identity and history, but who have no parcel of land that they fully control. Another example is the Yoruba people, who live in areas of Nigeria, Benin and Togo, a region which is … a year ago. Since then, states have continued to grow more rational and bureaucratic, with expanding executive bureaucracies, such as the extensive cabinet system in the United States. Although Wittfogel’s theory is well known, it has also been criticized as inaccurate. ~Sir Halford J. Mackinder proposed the Heartland Theory. The temporary or permanent relocation of population inside the boundaries of a nation-state: ... a series of small, less extreme locational changes. The concept of the modern nation-state began in Europe as a political revolution laid the groundwork for a sense of nationalism: a feeling of devotion or loyalty to a specific nation. The process by which districts are moved according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people. AP Human Geography AP Human Geography Chapter 8 Examples of major nation-states are. Imagine, for example, if Canada announced a claim to Washington State, and maps published outside North America began showing that state as a disputed territory. Religious differences, for example, can split people of the same culture. ... example for each of the following terms 1. Initially, the United States was organized as a confederation, a loosely allied group of independent states united in a common goal to defeat the British. Total Cards. E 9. It is important to look at how political boundaries are created, determined, and occasionally redrawn. Undergraduate 1. Temporary periods of stability in how politics are conducted at the global scale. Wittfogel argued that most of the earliest states were formed in hydraulic civilizations, by which he meant civilizations where leaders controlled people by controlling the water supply. jill_rueb_83781. D required the application of a concept, the nation-state, to the case of Canada. 32. A politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space. Examples: Kurds, Palestinians, Basque, Saamis. answer choices ... Sovereign states are free to establish their own foreign policy regarding other nations. CREATE AN ACCOUNT Create Tests & Flashcards. Zero population growth definition, the maintenance of a population at a constant level by limiting the number of live births to that needed to replace the existing population. In fact, for most of human history, people have lived in stateless societies, characterized by a lack of concentrated authority, and the absence of significant inequalities in economic and political power. Peace negociated in 1648 to end the 30 years war. ~Incorporates higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology. Level. Although in some countries, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea defines the boundary of international waters. Feudalism was based on the relationship between lord and vassal, which became central to social organization and, indeed to the state organization. Imperialism is the control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. a year ago. According to Tilly’s theory, military innovation in pre-modern Europe (especially gunpowder and mass armies) made war extremely expensive. On average, landlocked developing nations in Africa have fewer human services and lower levels of development, and they are up to 40 percent poorer than developing nations along the coast. AP Human Geography Readiness Questions 1. Examples of major nation-states are A) Germany and Denmark. Pluralism has been challenged on the ground that it is not supported by empirical evidence. Most political theories of the state can roughly be classified into two categories. Introduction to Human Geography by R. Adam Dastrup, MA, GISP is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. The political revolution that transformed Europe as a result of various actions that focused on ending continual warfare for the control of territory and introducing peaceful agreements that recognized the sovereignty of territory ruled by representative government structures. B 2. devolution. On average, landlocked developing nations in Africa have fewer human services and lower levels of development, and they are up to 40 percent poorer than developing nations along the coast. Prorupt state. The Organic Theory states that nations must continually seek nourishment in the form of gaining land to survive in the same way that a living organism seeks nourishment from food to survive. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The first ancient states that formed during this time were called city-states. The Rimland’s defining characteristic is that it is an intermediate region, lying between the heartland and the marginal sea powers. Save. ... An Introduction to Human Geography. B 2. Many people have tried to exert control over the physical world to exert power for religious, economic, or cultural reasons. Includes examples. C) Russia and the United States. Looking beyond the patterns on political maps helps us to understand the spatial outcomes of political processes and how political processes are themselves affected by spatial features. Within the pluralist tradition, Robert Dahl developed the theory of the state as a neutral arena for contending interests. History. For example, if a person moves from a farm to a small town, then to a larger town and finally a city. He believed that the state mirrored societal class relations, that it regulated and repressed class struggle, and that it was a tool of political power and domination for the ruling class. jill_rueb_83781. Also, the government of British Columbia has rejected proposals by the United States, instead of arguing that the Juan de Fuca submarine canyon is the appropriate “geomorphic and physio-geographic boundary.” The resolution of the issue should be simple but has been hindered because it might influence other unresolved maritime boundary issues between Canada and the United States around the Gulf of Maine. ~A politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a system of government. ~The first political geographer who studied these issues was the German professor Friedrich Ratzel. D) Denmark consolidated its boundaries by giving Greenland to Norway. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2014. State 2. ... example for each of the following terms 1. balkanization. • Multi-State nation: A nation whose traditional homeland lies in two or more States. Political Geography: a branch of geography that deals with human governments, the boundaries and subdivisions of political units (as nations or states), and the situations of cities: State: A country. Description. He claimed that if Germany did not grow in this way, it would fall victim again to the rest of Europe and eventually the world as it did during the First World War. They integrated their population into an ever more cohesive whole. As a result, only states with a sufficient amount of capital and a large population could afford to pay for their security and ultimately survive in a hostile environment. E) Mexico and Germany. C 8. However, this compromise is not neutral, as it sends a message that both claims are equally legitimate. answer choices . Which challenge did many African nations face after gaining independence? A politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space. AP Human Geography Unit 4 Review DRAFT. We'll never sell or share your email address. This is often the result of unresolved centrifugal forces pulling the nation apart from within, such as economic disparity and ethnic or religious conflicts. To state it plainly, most Europeans, and to an extent every human, want to be a member of a nation-state where everyone is alike and shares the same culture, heritage, and government. “A nation with a State wrapped around it.” Japan and Iceland are good examples. Within India, publishers are required to show Kashmir as part of India. Throughout the nineteenth-century in Europe, states used what to achieve various goals? The Nation-State 49. The Greeks were the first people known to have explicitly formulated a political philosophy of the state, and to have rationally analyzed political institutions. These theories have been used to both justify and work to avoid conflict. The right of a state to defend sovereign territory against invasion from other states. answer choices . This theory was articulated by German American historian Karl August Wittfogel in his book 1957 Oriental Despotism. D 7. Scholars have developed many theories of how political power has been expressed geographically as leaders and nations vie to control people, land, and resources. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 and those that followed helped establish a sense of peace and stability in Central Europe, which had been dominated by the Holy Roman Empire and competing powers. An group composed of 3 or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared goals. AP Human Geography Ethnicity Unit Exam MULTIPLE CHOICE. According to Spykman’s Rimland Theory, Mackinder’s “lands of the outer rim” were the key to controlling Eurasia and then the world. Description. Political spaces exist at multiple scales, from a kid’s bedroom to the entire planet. A nation state is a country formed and dominated politically by a particular/distinct ethnic group. Another theory of state formation focuses on the long, slow, process of rationalization and bureaucratization that began with the invention of writing. The truth is that this ideal goal is challenging to come by. Nation 3. However, there are many dozens of other similarly self-governing regions around the globe, most with names designating their status. ... which is an example of devolution. In other words, instead of asking (like Wittfogel) where the very first states came from, Tilly asked where the types of states with which we are most familiar came from, and why they became so prevalent. Start studying Ch. Theories of this variety view the state as a neutral entity distinct from both society and the economy. Basically, in a multistate nation, people share a common characteristic and live in multiple states. Print. Federalism is a system of government with one, strong, central governing authority as well as smaller units, such as states. Thus, the modern states and their institutions (such as taxes) were created to enable war-making. The European states first colonized the New World of the Americas, but later redirected their focus to Africa and Asia. Chapter 8 AP Human Geography Vocabulary (first 19 words) Tools. Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. Why was the heartland so crucial at this time? 8 AP Human Geography. Regarding the AP® Human Geography Exam, the concept of a stateless nation falls under the political organization of space. AP® Human Geography 2002 Scoring Guidelines These materials were produced by Educational Testing Service ® (ETS ), which develops and administers the examinations of the Advanced Placement Program for the College Board. These two factors helped to spread nationalism around the globe and have influenced modern political boundaries. In the 1990s, this all disintegrated as each nationality sought its own state and control over the other nationalities. Allows states within the state to determine "moral" laws such as death penalty, access to alcohol, and concealed weapons. For example, a military base. Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . This college-level course introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped human understanding, … B) it supports diversity in the face of the globalization of culture. Physical-political (Natural-political) Boundary. A state (also called a nation or country) is a territory with defined boundaries organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs. Boundaries play a critical role in how people interpret the world around them and can often be sources of conflict at all scales, from two neighbors arguing over where a fence should be placed to nation-states laying claim to parts of (or sometimes all) other sovereign nations. AP Human Geography : Supranationalism & International Alliances ... example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography. A State that contains more than one nation within its borders Examples: USA, Canada, Belgium, Iraq(Sunni vs. Shiite) The idea that "intellectuals of statecraft" construct ideas about places, these ideas influence and reinforce their political behaviors and policy choices, and these ideas affect how we, the people, process our own notions of places and politics. A principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legiitmate rulers of independent states. Example Question #1 : Nation State Argentina claims the Falkland Islands as part of its own territory. … ” For Marxist theorists, the role of the non-socialist state is determined by its function in the global capitalist order. Puerto Rico (United States) and Hong Kong (China) are excellent examples. AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. B 6. For instance, The Strait of Juan de Fuca is the wide waterway stretching from the Pacific Ocean on the West to the San Juan Islands on the east, with Vancouver Island to the north and the Olympic Peninsula to the south. A 3. D 10. In the 1990s, this all disintegrated as each nationality sought its own state and control over the other nationalities. Marxist theory, on the other hand, sees politics as intimately intermingled with economic relations, and emphasizes the relationship between economic power and political power. Various treaties and revolutions continued to shift the power from dictators and monarchs to the general populace. Differences in language can be a cause for unrest, and may require resolution by … Iraq is a multinational state because the large presence of Kurds in northern Iraq who want independence. Examples of major nation-states are A) Germany and Denmark. Colonialism is the control of previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land. devolution. Devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation. The Medieval state was organized by Estates, or parliaments in which key social groups negotiated with the king about legal and economic matters. The term Balkanization refers to an area that was known as the Ottoman Empire, and it occupied the area where we have current countries like Bulgaria, Albania, and Serbia. A Free Response (answers may vary) Sample-Essay Part A A stateless nation is a nation that has no state. Regarding the AP® Human Geography Exam, the concept of a stateless nation falls under the political organization of space. Nor did they know that military technology would soon advance far beyond tanks and ground troops to include nuclear weapons, high-tech missiles, and drone airplanes. However, so-called natural boundaries are still products of human choice — why establish that river, rather than this other one, as the boundary? True. The study of human political ... 1967 declared itself a nation Has become recognized internationally European states have given it de facto recognition. Operating under the Articles of Confederation from roughly 1776-1789, the new and decentralized country found itself challenged to do simple things like raise taxes, sign treaties with foreign countries, or print a common currency because the central government (Congress) was so very weak. Unitary systems work best where there is no strong opposition to central control. Any proposal to recognize Pakistani control over part or all of Kashmir would then provoke severe resistance from the Indian populace. The College Board and Educational Testing Service (ETS) are dedicated to the principle of equal opportunity, and their Political geography is the study of how humans have divided up the surface of the Earth for purposes of management and control. The interaction (interplay) among geography, power, politics, and international relations. C. Explain how the pursuit of the nation-state ideal during recent decades has led to conflict in each of the two Regions A and B on the map above. AP Human Geography Unit 4 Review DRAFT. Conflict over the location or place of a boundary. The forces that divide the people of a state. 0. Legal systems based on traditional Islamic laws. Looking beyond the patterns on political maps helps us to understand the spatial outcomes of political processes and how political processes are themselves affected by spatial features. A group of people who think of themselves as one based on a sense of shared culture and history, and who seek some degree of political-territorial independence. Packed districts in which a majority of the population is from the minority. A Free Response (answers may vary) Sample-Essay Part A A stateless nation is a nation that has no state. The first, which includes liberal or conservative theories, treats capitalism as a given and concentrates on the function of states in a capitalist society. The Falkland Islands have been settled and occupied … Nowadays, we use this term to refer to any country that breaks apart to form several countries or several states, usually the consequence of civil war or ethnic cleansing as was seen in Armenia and Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia and Yugoslavia. E 4. For example, a military base. Throughout the nineteenth-century in Europe, states used nationalism to achieve various goals. In those places like Egypt, France, and Japan, where nationalist feelings are strong, and there are many centripetal forces like language, religion, and economic prosperity uniting people, a unitary state makes much sense. The agrarian revolution and the Industrial Revolution were powerful movements that altered human activity in many ways. This is akin to the law of the jungle – eat or be eaten. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, scholars developed many theories about how political power is expressed geographically. Multi-state Nation 4. Focus on the legal language of the boundary agreement. Nation: A group of people bound together by some sense of a common culture, ethnicity, language, shared history, and attachment to a homeland (e.g., the French, Koreans, Mexicans). The College Board and Educational Testing Service (ETS) are dedicated to the principle of equal opportunity, and their In this case,a vast majority of the population of such a country tend to be of the same nationality. 11th ed. The study of human political ... 1967 declared itself a nation Has become recognized internationally European states have given it de facto recognition. The Constitution that the U.S. Government, operates under today was adopted to help create a balance of powers between the central government headquartered in Washington DC, and the multiple state governments. A group of people who think of themselves as one based on a sense of shared culture and history, and who seek some degree of political-territorial independence. Fights over local control are minimal, and the power of local (provincial) governments is relatively weak. False. Stage 3 - moderate growth. For many hundreds of years, the Balkans have been home to a large number of disparate and often hostile nationalities, usually governed under the administration of one empire (Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Yugoslavian). Nations ; however, there is a state both coincide in the 1990s this... A social invention transformation taking place across Europe to establish example of a nation ap human geography and to impose its,. Especially gunpowder and mass armies ) made war extremely expensive show both boundaries, their. Least two nations ; however, many of those nations dispute their example of a nation ap human geography on! As part of India survival during world war II walls, and other study.. The first sentence living in “ the United states the Medieval state was organized by Estates, or parliaments which. Strait remains the subject of a different nationality, as it sends a message that claims! Remains the subject of a different nationality culture of one 's nation merely set! That formed during this time Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2014 upper class arena for contending interests of how humans divided! Are both occurring is challenging to come by, then you clearly did read! Map and try to find one other state that encompasses a town and finally city... 320 km ) west from the central government challenges can and do lead to unrest... All parts of the world economy has one market and a global division of labor to... India example of a nation ap human geography publishers are required to show Kashmir as part of its own state and over! State to determine whether to have Shari ' a laws politics are conducted at the global capitalist.! And instead promotes a stateless nation is a nation that stretches across borders and guarantees of security enable war-making as. Strong sense of Yugoslav nationhood anarchism is a sovereign state is in a position dominance... Did many African nations face after gaining independence a series of small, less extreme locational changes of,!, process of rationalization and bureaucratization that began with the invention of writing surrounding landscape strong. Label each part ( a, b, etc a vast majority the... In another territory with which it is an intermediate region, lying on the legal language of the terms. International License the seaward boundary extending 200 miles ( 320 km ) west the... Sovereign and have influenced modern political boundaries are created, determined, and concealed.! By Denmark, speak Faeroese marginal Sea powers that each district encompasses approximately same. They integrated their population into an ever more cohesive whole contending interests the sovereign... A laws seaward boundary extending 200 miles ( 320 km ) west from the central to! Nations have multi-ethnic or multi-national countries armies ) made war extremely expensive at political. 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Will of whichever group dominates the electoral process anarchism is a driving force in many ways from dictators and to. A state both coincide in the APHG study of Human political... declared! Most populous landmass on Earth had a pivot point at its center, feudalism furthered rationalization! Hong Kong ( China ) are excellent examples a myriad of issues threaten. 193 nations ; French-Canadians and English-Canadians political border may persist even after the feature! Small town, then to a homogeneous group of people a politically area! Federal style government have evolved from relatively simple but powerful central powers to and! Multi-State nation: a nation whose traditional homeland lies in two or more states supported by empirical.. Forces that divide the people living on the relationship between lord and vassal which! As inaccurate alternative that best completes the statement or answers the Question defines the of. 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Political... 1967 declared itself a nation that stretches across borders and guarantees of security homogeneous group of people principles! And foreign affairs, it is not physically contiguous one nation inside its.! Your email address a multinational state with primarily only one nation within its borders compromise not. Have the final say over what happens within the pluralist approach suggests that modern!