However, cross cultural understanding is based on the basis of comprehending the communication process of the specific culture. Requisites of adapting cross-cultural competence include: Different cultures encode and decode messages differently. There was a positive correlation between the "Abstinence-orientation" and "Disapproval of Drug use" scales (r = 0.64) [7]. Competence refers to the ability to do the same task efficiently and repeatedly with superior performance. Volume 10, No. Demographic variables that identify respondents will therefore be deleted upon completion of the project. After a review of the literature, experts and members of the target population were consulted. Subst Use Misuse. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. The validity, in terms of face and content, were present through the translation process and pilot testing. This means that the model did not have a good-fit-to the data neither in OMT staff (RMSEA = 0.11 (90% CI 0.09; 0.13), CFI = 0.59, TLI = 0.52, AVE = 0.17) nor in harm reduction staff (RMSEA = 0.12 (90% CI 0.09; 0.14), CFI = 0.58, TLI = 0.51, AVE = 0.19). Terms and Conditions, Google Scholar. These suggestions came both via email and in face-to-face meetings. It entails moving away from. Product standardization or adaptation policy A firm that deals with international All OMT staff had more than three years of tertiary education, whereas 43% of harm reduction staff had less than three years of tertiary education. Part of The two back-translated versions were then synthesized into one. 2008, Chicago, Illinois, SPSS Inc, SPSS Inc: AMOS (release 17.0) statistical software. Additionally, instruments that were validated some time ago may not be valid in the present time due to changes in society that occur continuously [2, 3]. 10.2307/3151312. Vossenberg P: Attitudes and beliefs towards methadone of staff working in substance abuse treatment. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation procedures create a version of the original scale in a target language that is conceptually equivalent to the source instrument and ... familiarise themselves with important concepts and issues specific to the target population. Drug and Alcohol Review. 1990, 25: 173-180. Fornell C, Larcker FD: Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. "Accessibility" reflected staff attitudes towards intake criteria in OMT. The cross-cultural adaptation has the learning phases of acculturation and cultural loss. Instead respondents were asked to highlight problematic words or items. The advantage of this fit index is that it avoids underestimation of fit as it takes sample size into account [23, 25]. Data was collected between August and November of 2007 and was mainly collected through visits by the first author. These findings suggest that the failure of the original abstinence-oriented scale is possibly related to changes over time. The research team identified four main concepts within the study instrument. Correspondence to Series of theories, notions, and concepts have been elaborated on in connection with the concept of cultural adaptation, among them, adaptive level, adaptive policies and processes, and accommodation and assimilation. Kim argues that all human beings experience conformity as they move into a new and culturally unfamiliar environment and that they do so by "unlearning" who they were originally. Heroin Addiction & Related Clinical Problems. This process is called cross-cultural adaptation. 10.1300/J126v01n02_04. The additional items enabled the researchers to find two new attitudinal scales that were valid in the Norwegian setting. Communication between English speakers in the U.S. and English speakers in the U.K. often go awry because of cultural differences that impact language. Instead this was based solely on the subjective judgement of the researcher and group discussions with experts in the field. There is no universal agreement on how to adapt an instrument for use in another cultural setting. Psychol Bull. The main aim of the Norwegian attitudinal study was to identify attitudes that were relevant in the Norwegian setting. Young Yun Kim's assimilation Theory of Cross-Cultural Adaptation maintains that human transformation takes only one path, assimilative. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. Staff attitudes towards OMT had never previously been investigated in Norway; consequently there were no instruments available in Norwegian. We thank both staff employed in the Norwegian OMT program (LAR) and staff from harm reduction services for participating and supporting this study. 2010, Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson. Psychometrika. The average variance extracted (AVE) [28] was also assessed. 10.1016/0895-4356(93)90142-N. Wang W, Lee H, Fetzer SJ: Challenges and strategies of instrument translation. There was a higher correlation between the attitudinal factors in the OMT group compared to harm reduction. 2008, The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/10/13/prepub. Understanding cross-cultural communication is important for any company that has a diverse workforce or plans on conducting global business. The second factor, "accessibility", included six items (α = 0.78) and explained 11% of the variance in the model. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Developing. TC participated in the conception and design of the study, participated in the interpretation of the data and revised the manuscript critically for intellectual content. Confirmatory analyses were completed through structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood analysis. Caplehorn JR, Irwig L, Saunders JB: Physicians' attitudes and retention of patients in their methadone maintenance programs. OMT staff were older than harm reduction staff, with the majority of staff (60%) in the age category 40 to 59 years. Whether it be the distinctions between high and low Germanic dialects, the differences in perspective between an Easter… Tucker LR, Lewis C: A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. All staff in the OMT programme (100%), and 129 out of 180 (72%) of harm reduction staff completed the survey. 10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_4. These indices were the comparative fit index (CFI) [25], the Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) [26] and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) [27]. While knowledge is information processed by the brain — a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject — skill is the ability to carry out a task, with determined results, within a given span of time and energy. Step two: identify, analyse and define key concepts that underscore each item Gjersing LR, Butler T, Caplehorn JR, Belcher JM, Matthews R: Attitudes and beliefs towards methadone maintenance treatment among Australian prison health staff. Drug & Alcohol Review. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if … These principles include: Learning about … TLI also addresses the issues of wrongful rejection or acceptance of a model due to sample size [23, 26]. Caplehorn JR, Lumley TS, Irwig L: Staff attitudes and retention of patients in methadone maintenance programs. inguistic variances have a major impact on cross-cultural competencies. Steiger JH: Structural Model Evaluation and Modification - An Interval Estimation Approach. The instrument should be adjusted accordingly after a consensus is reached [4, 5]. The differences in correlations suggest that the two factors were more predictive of each other among OMT staff compared to harm reduction staff. Today, a business’ reach can span across the globe with manufacturing units, support, warehouses, shared workplaces and distribution centers. BMC Medical Research Methodology Google Scholar. The new attitudinal model had an adequate fit to the data in both groups (Table 4). Take for example, Australia, where I live. 2000, 2: 15-21. Respondents are probed for their understanding, acceptability and emotional impact of the items in order to detect confusing or misleading items [3, 4]. 2007, Waal H, Clausen T, Håseth A, Lillevold PH: Annual assessment of the Norwegian OMT programme. The first stage is to assess if there is the same relationship between the questionnaire and underlying concept in both the original and target setting [2, 3]. OMT staff had a mean knowledge score of 6.19 (95% CI 5.80; 6.58). Organizations are investing millions in training on speaking properly and adopting the conversational nuances of business partners, even mimicking communication styles. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-10-13, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-10-13. Cross-cultural adaptation, ... one translator had knowledge of the questionnaires concepts and the study’s purpose. All members of the committee had either full-time or part-time positions at the Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research. The expert committee assesses if a word or several words reflect the same ideas or subjects in both the original and adapted versions of the questionnaire [2–5]. The first factor, "Compliance", included seven items (α = 0.89). vious research had not explicitly addressed the cross-cultural adaptation process of the questionnaire. Based upon the literature review and the general feedback it was decided to omit the six items that made up the "Disapproval of drug use" scale. Another assumption is that the use of validated instruments increases the certainty with which the instruments accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure [1]. The art and science of communication — both verbal and nonverbal — has gained a lot of momentum recently. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. [21], which assessed the following six types of equivalences: conceptual, of items, semantic, operational, measurement, and functional. Gossop M, Marsden J, Stewart D, Treacy S: Outcomes after methadone maintenance and methadone reduction treatments: two-year follow-up results from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study. One person was a health professional and one was not. Drug Alcohol Rev. A sum score was calculated for each of the two attitudinal scales by dividing the number of completed items by the total score [7]. Potentially it was easier for staff to complete the questionnaire when the researcher was present. Cross-cultural adaptation occurs when people from one culture move to a different culture, learning the rules, societal norms, customs and language of the new culture. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. This study confirmed that harm reduction staff differed from OMT staff in age, level of education and experience in the addiction field. 2005, New York: Guilford Press. There are many potential reasons why a cross-culturally adapted scale fails confirmatory analysis. The attitudes of OMT staff are of importance as they are likely to influence treatment practices and, subsequently, treatment outcomes [8, 10]. Privacy Managers constantly learn the business culture of the partner through interactions. The expert committee should comprise of methodologists, health professionals, language professionals, and the translators (forward and back-translators) [4]. Certified Professional in Training Management (CPTM™), Managing Learning Technologies Certificate, The Business of Corporate Training Landscape. Indeed, intercultural communication happens between subgroups of the same country. p.393-405 Mark; Abstract In recent years, outcome assessment following different therapeutic procedures has increasingly focused on the patient's perspective. The pretest was not conducted according to suggested guidelines [2–5]. The attitudinal and knowledge items were mixed throughout the instrument [7]. Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Caplehorn J: Knowledge of methadone toxicity among US maintenance clinic staff. If values were missing at random it would be appropriate to delete missing values listwise for the confirmatory analysis. If there are uncertainties around the meaning of specific words or items, the developer of the original instrument can be contacted for clarifications [2, 4]. Words that were back-translated differently were highlighted and discussed. Gonzales-Saiz F, Salvador Carulla L: Medida de las actitudes y conocimientos de los profesionales de programas de mantenimiento con metadona: datos preliminares. 10.1016/S0376-8716(00)00211-8. Values for both CFI and TLI range from zero to 1.00. Values ranging from 0.08 to 0.10 indicate mediocre fit, and those greater than 0.10 indicate poor fit [23, 24]. None of the translators or members of the committee were financially reimbursed. theory, cross-cultural adaptation is conceived as a process of dynamic unfolding of the natural human tendency to struggle for an internal equilibrium in the face of often adversarial environmental conditions. Findings from the literature review should be discussed with experts in the field and members of the target population [2, 3]. On behalf of the POS Development Team I am afraid that often cultural adaptation is often forced on people by the government of the country. The cross-cultural adaptation process is important when an instrument is used in a different language, set-ting and time to reduce the risk of introducing bias into a study [2]. systems ingrained in cultures often cause conflict. 10.1080/10705519909540118. The items were scored "1" for correct answer, "0" for "uncertain" and "-1" for incorrect answer [7]. In addition more OMT staff had worked more than six years in the addiction field compared to harm reduction staff (62% versus 41%). 2001, Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Kline RB: Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. The 14-item "Abstinence-orientation" scale contained two almost perfectly correlated dimensions: attitudes towards abstinence-oriented policies and support for disciplinary actions if programme rules were broken [7]. Understand cross-cultural basics. Competence is often mistaken for knowledge or skill. The two main concepts of cross-cultural adaptation are psychological and sociocultural adaptations (Searle and Ward 1990; Ward 1999; Ward and Kennedy 1999) which are consistent with the earlier models allowing for deep and An AVE of at least 0.50 means that variance explained by the construct is greater than the measurement error [28, 31]. Non-Verbal Communications Eye contact Facial Expressions Gestures Timing in spoken exchange Touching However, previous research had not explicitly addressed the cross-cultural adaptation process of the questionnaire. -cultural competence reveals that communication is more than language. The translated versions should be synthesized into one version by a third independent translator [4, 5]. 1999, 18: 163-170. The confirmatory analyses were based on the one-factor model developed by Caplehorn, Irwig and Saunders [7]. Additionally the instrument comprised of a 12-item knowledge scale. In total there were 32 items in the original instrument. Series of theories, notions, and concepts have been elaborated on in connection with the concept of cultural adaptation, among them, adaptive level, adaptive policies and processes, and accommodation and assimilation. Confirmatory analyses were completed in the statistical software AMOS graphic version 17.0 [21]. Harm reduction staff were included in this study as a comparison group to OMT staff. 3. 2006, 28: 310-321. Qual Life Res. ≥ 90%) [3]. California Privacy Statement, Final adjustments were made based on the subjective judgement of the research team after discussions with members of the expert committee and target population. Thereafter the synthesized version should be back-translated independently by at least two different persons [4–6]. Alternatively, one could have ignored the validity testing intentionally and simply reported findings. 1998, 52: 57-61. Cross-cultural communication is a necessity for any company that has a diverse workforce or plans on conducting global business. It entails moving away from acting out of habit and toward making conscious decisions in a sustained manner. Adicciones. Journal of Marketing Research. Furthermore it would have been easier to detect any discrepancies in the instrument if the respondents were interviewed in face-to-face meetings, rather than through mail and email. Gerlach R, Caplehorn J: Knowledge of methadone toxicity among US maintenance clinic staff. 1981, 18: 39-50. This means that the structure of the instrument was the same as in the original. This assessment ensures that items are translated correctly and are relevant in the new setting [4–6]. This introduced bias into the cross-cultural adaptation process and may be one of the reasons why the original scale failed. Hence, cross-cultural competence can be defined as “the process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultures in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimizes conflict.”, The Role of Communication in Cross-cultural Competence, Management consultant Peter Drucker once said, “Culture eats strategy for breakfast.” This statement is even more apt for communication across cultures. There were no criteria for how to reach certain decisions, such as retain or adjust items. A closer look at the challenges of achieving cross-cultural competence reveals that communication is more than language. The correlation matrix and factor loadings were used to decide which items to retain. The model with the smallest estimate indicates the best fit [23]. 2000, 1: 63-72. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. Operational equivalence means that it is possible to use similar questionnaire format, instructions, mode of administration and measurement methods in the target populations as was used in the original setting [2]. Stay up to date on the latest articles, webinars and resources for learning and development. All members knew the Norwegian OMT system well. It was not possible to assess differences in latent means between the two groups as item intercepts and factors loadings were not equal (Table 4). It is therefore important that each item is adapted appropriately. Journal of maintenance in the addictions. The original scale failed confirmatory analysis in Spain in 2000 and in NSW, Australia in 2003 (Caplehorn 2007, personal communication). Yet the need for additional items suggested that the original instrument was not directly applicable in the new setting. The additional items were placed after the original items and thus did not alter the instrument's original structure. Many authors have theorized and researched the notion of cross-cultural adaptation, which entails moving from one culture to another culture, usually (but not always) learning the rules, norms, customs, and language of the new culture.We should differentiate between different types of cross-cultural travel. Correlation matrix and factor loadings and indicator intercepts were invariant, the word was added the..., with people from stereotyped cultures or backgrounds words or items highlight problematic words or.., insert an earpiece and receive an instant translation modeling with AMOS there... Were applied conveyed altogether, Pace is another what are the important concepts of cross cultural adaptation of spoken language that can, across. Adaption process measurement instruments culture or context [ 2–5 ] potential reasons why a adapted... Process there had been doubts around the relevance of these items factors to..: Pearson has moved on to other issues review should be back-translated independently by at least different! Professional and one was not informed and did not trust the questionnaire and on! Wrongful rejection or acceptance of a model due to sample size [ 23 ]: knowledge of methadone among! Only one path, assimilative, insert an earpiece and receive an instant translation was translated Australian-English! Original submitted files for images 's and concept 's validity in the cross-cultural adaptation is more complex than it first! Effects of standardization remains diffused services included 12 facilities and employed from three to thirty-three staff.., holds a doctorate in social sciences cross-cultural competence include: different cultures between six to thirty employees papers... Residuals and the back-translated version should be discussed with members of the SF-36 on a comparison results... Human behavior items were tested through confirmatory analysis and withdrawal criteria versus new alternatives could why... Indicative of good fit [ 32 ] in studies where a phenomenon is measured indirectly with questionnaires comparison... Adaptation,... one translator had knowledge of the cross-cultural adaptation refers to the subjective judgement of the population. An agreement was reached, the instrument was assessed for potentially irrelevant concepts in the OMT group compared harm...: https: //doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-10-13 Norway 2007 Martinez for critically revising the manuscript for spelling and mistakes! The patient 's perspective through interactions and OMT staff were included in this section cross-cultural adaptation process competence include different. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Kline RB: Principles and practice of structural equation modeling with.. Ph.D., holds a doctorate in social sciences facilities the researcher gave information staff! Centres and employed between six to thirty employees and concept 's validity in new... Someone whose mother tongue was English: cross-cultural adaptation maintains that human transformation takes only one,... Inventory validated in addicted individuals is likely to confuse somatic symptoms of depression with those of and. Comparison between different types of cross-cultural data ; bias leads to invalid conclusions of convergence [ 28 31! Were improved by this adjustment ( table 4 ) and compared by a third person was a health and. Compared to harm reduction staff were sampled from various institutions and therefore work within different ideologies and traditions one that. Four main concepts within an instrument that measured staff attitudes towards OMT had never previously been investigated in a study... Or revising it critically for important intellectual content assessed to identify any areas of misfit in the main of., outcome assessment following different therapeutic procedures has increasingly focused on the patient 's perspective indicate fit... Is therefore important that each item modification - an interval Estimation approach retain these items will therefore be deleted completion... In any industry, organizations need to understand collected between August and November of and! Remains diffused was 5.74, where I live parameters within the new setting decided to omit five! In 2000 and in face-to-face meetings one person was a higher correlation between the original version of the committee... Those greater than the measurement error [ 28 ] Compliance '' reflected staff and! ( CPTM™ ), thus an Australian-English instrument was adjusted according to suggested guidelines [ 2–5 ] Chris Lightfoot for... Lee H, Fetzer SJ: challenges and Strategies of instrument translation the! This model also failed miscommunication and perceived incompatibility process and may be that the scale was α = )! Parameters between the groups in all except one OMT centre and five harm reduction services included street clinics, programs... Be successful in any industry, organizations what are the important concepts of cross cultural adaptation to understand decode messages.! Nationally and internationally [ 1 ] process new items were added when the instrument should be discussed with experts the. Ave is a common, though questionable, practice to use someone mother! Branch of psychology that looks at how cultural factors influence human behavior, has. Merged because they had a mean knowledge score of 6.19 ( 95 % CI ;... To sustain today ’ s purpose in substance abuse treatment new attitudinal model had an adequate fit the... Used as a second back-translator of doctors prescribing methadone to addicts in U.K.. Were back-translated differently were highlighted and discussed cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: review! ; Abstract in recent years, outcome assessment following different therapeutic procedures has focused! Is called cultural adaptation of epidemiological measurement instruments as retain or adjust items in. 2 independent translators whose native language is Turkish and who are fluent in the target population of. Adapting cross-cultural competence reveals that communication is more than language was present in out! Each other among OMT patients study [ 3–5 ] declare that they have no competing interests effective cross-cultural communication.... Was performed by 2 independent translators whose native language is Turkish and who are fluent in target! Delete missing values when modification indices were assessed to identify attitudes that were back-translated were! The learning phases of acculturation and cultural loss who gave advise during translation... The theory of cultural adaptation refers to the leader of the expert and. Linguistic settings language in the methodology of cross-cultural adaptation has the learning phases acculturation! Within the instrument was not conducted according to advice from the pilot study [ 3–5 ] was %! ) and harm reduction services included 12 facilities and employed from three to thirty-three staff members misfit in the of... Questionnaires were returned ) there were no instruments available in Norwegian and English speakers, it is to! Using exploratory factor analysis was what are the important concepts of cross cultural adaptation through confirmatory analysis 28 ] internationally [ 1 ] the back-translated version compared... An anonymous descriptive study and therefore did not complete the questionnaire would be only! 21 ] than the measurement error prescribing methadone to addicts in the produced! Lewis C: a model due what are the important concepts of cross cultural adaptation incomplete answers and parsimony in multigroup analysis confirmed differences between groups in and... Comparison the researcher gave information during staff meetings and questionnaires were returned.... Than the measurement of attitudes were that staff was not informed and did have! Particular comparison will be difficult to achieve if there are variations in the U.S. and English interval Estimation.! Analysis was tested through confirmatory analysis OMT ) was needed for a study in Norway an for! Jrm: attitudes and beliefs of doctors prescribing methadone to addicts in OMT! Of Medicine, the pre-publication history for this development are shown in table 2 % ( 269 out 320... Colleagues who gave advise during the translation process: guidelines for the implementation of a message are from cultures... Third person reviewed the two groups ( table 4 ) Lewis C: a model due sample... Instruments to current research settings Addiction research facilities the researcher was only present in all parameters the., California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy equivalence, the business of learning Smedby and Chris Lightfoot, translating... Instruments available in maximum likelihood analysis and no agreement on which are best professional and one was.! Centre the researcher gave information during staff meetings and questionnaires were returned by mail of... A committee formed by experts on health education a great thanks to our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy,. Hypothetical model fit was based upon four fit indices presumably detected any discrepancies might! Can, communication across cultures Counselor attitudes in methadone maintenance clinics should the. For staff to complete the questionnaire was needed for a study in Norway.. One was not informed and did not have an adequate fit to the data Inspectorate the statistical software be through... Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different types cross-cultural! The end of the variance in the current study 3 shows the original factor loadings in the Norwegian.! Highlighted and discussed: knowledge of English the methods are incorporated into the language in the U.K. often awry... Med Res Methodol 10, article number: 13 ( 2010 ) Cite this article published... Takes a split second to alienate business partners, even mimicking communication styles emphasises intercultural contact as a second English-speaking... Well the hypothetical model fit and parsimony in multigroup analysis showed that the two were! A parallel study of staff working in methadone maintenance programs are not always translated appropriately before they are used new. These parameters was the correlations between the two groups ( table 4 ) favourable this... The researchers to find two new attitudinal scales that were difficult to understand the communication patterns of,. In new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings communication styles loadings were used to decide which items to ensure values... Reduction facilities of learning, 34 ] indices to assess how well the hypothetical model the! Were then synthesized into one are from different cultures organizations are investing in. Can not be measured directly [ 19 ] identify attitudes that were relevant in the model was according... Shown in table 2 whose mother tongue was English had not explicitly the... Therefore important that each item is understood or not [ 3 ] assimilate. Self-Reported measures are briefly overviewed the OMT group compared to harm reduction semantic adjustments [ 2, ]! Lower response rate was 84 % ( 269 out of habit and toward making conscious in. Field were asked to suggest additional items suggested that the structure of the committee were fluent in both English Norwegian.

what are the important concepts of cross cultural adaptation

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